Code Guide by @web-w3cdream

Standards for developing flexible, durable, and sustainable HTML and CSS, and maintainable JavaScript

通过分析github代码库总结出来的工程师代码书写习惯:GO!!!

目录

命名规则

HTML

CSS, SCSS

JavaScript

code snippets

编辑器配置和构建检查

最佳原则

坚持制定好的代码规范。

无论团队人数多少,代码应该同出一门。

如果你想要为这个规范做贡献或觉得有不合理的地方,请访问New Issue

命名规则

项目命名

全部采用小写方式, 以下划线分隔。

例:my_project_name

目录命名

参照项目命名规则;

完整英文命名的用复数形式,缩写用单数形式

例:scripts, js, styles, css, images, img, data_models, modules, lego_modules, pages

JS文件命名

参照项目命名规则。

例:account_model.js

CSS, SCSS文件命名

参照项目命名规则。

例:retina_sprites.scss

HTML文件命名

参照项目命名规则。

例:error_report.html

HTML

语法

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <title>Page title</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <img src="images/company_logo.png" alt="Company">

        <h1 class="hello-world">Hello, world!</h1>
    </body>
</html>

HTML5 doctype

在页面开头使用这个简单地doctype来启用标准模式,使其在每个浏览器中尽可能一致的展现;

虽然doctype不区分大小写,但是按照惯例,doctype大写 (关于html属性,大写还是小写)。

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
	...
</html>

lang属性

根据HTML5规范:

应在html标签上加上lang属性。这会给语音工具和翻译工具帮助,告诉它们应当怎么去发音和翻译。

更多关于 lang 属性的说明在这里

在sitepoint上可以查到语言列表

但sitepoint只是给出了语言的大类,例如中文只给出了zh,但是没有区分香港,台湾,大陆。而微软给出了一份更加详细的语言列表,其中细分了zh-cn, zh-hk, zh-tw。

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en-us">
    ...
</html>

字符编码

通过声明一个明确的字符编码,让浏览器轻松、快速的确定适合网页内容的渲染方式,通常指定为'UTF-8'。

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
    </head>
    ...
</html>

IE兼容模式

<meta> 标签可以指定页面应该用什么版本的IE来渲染;

如果你想要了解更多,请点击这里

不同doctype在不同浏览器下会触发不同的渲染模式(这篇文章总结的很到位)。

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=Edge">
    </head>
    ...
</html>

引入CSS, JS

根据HTML5规范, 通常在引入CSS和JS时不需要指明 type,因为 text/csstext/javascript 分别是他们的默认值。

HTML5 规范链接

<!-- External CSS -->
<link rel="stylesheet" href="code_guide.css">

<!-- In-document CSS -->
<style>
    ...
</style>

<!-- External JS -->
<script src="code_guide.js"></script>

<!-- In-document JS -->
<script>
    ...
</script>

属性顺序

属性应该按照特定的顺序出现以保证易读性;

<a class="..." id="..." data-modal="toggle" href="#">Example link</a>

<input class="form-control" type="text">

<img src="..." alt="...">

boolean属性

boolean属性指不需要声明取值的属性,XHTML需要每个属性声明取值,但是HTML5并不需要;

更多内容可以参考 WhatWG section on boolean attributes

boolean属性的存在表示取值为true,不存在则表示取值为false。

<input type="text" disabled>

<input type="checkbox" value="1" checked>

<select>
    <option value="1" selected>1</option>
</select>

JS生成标签

在JS文件中生成标签让内容变得更难查找,更难编辑,性能更差。应该尽量避免这种情况的出现。

减少标签数量

在编写HTML代码时,需要尽量避免多余的父节点;

很多时候,需要通过迭代和重构来使HTML变得更少。

<!-- Not well -->
<span class="avatar">
    <img src="...">
</span>

<!-- Better -->
<img class="avatar" src="...">

实用高于完美

尽量遵循HTML标准和语义,但是不应该以浪费实用性作为代价;

任何时候都要用尽量小的复杂度和尽量少的标签来解决问题。

CSS, SCSS

缩进

使用soft tab(4个空格)。

.element {
    position: absolute;
    top: 10px;
    left: 10px;

    border-radius: 10px;
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
}

分号

每个属性声明末尾都要加分号。

.element {
    width: 20px;
    height: 20px;

    background-color: red;
}

空格

以下几种情况不需要空格:

以下几种情况需要空格:

/* not good */
.element {
    color :red! important;
    background-color: rgba(0,0,0,.5);
}

/* good */
.element {
    color: red !important;
    background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, .5);
}

/* not good */
.element ,
.dialog{
    ...
}

/* good */
.element,
.dialog {

}

/* not good */
.element>.dialog{
    ...
}

/* good */
.element > .dialog{
    ...
}

/* not good */
.element{
    ...
}

/* good */
.element {
    ...
}

/* not good */
@if{
    ...
}@else{
    ...
}

/* good */
@if {
    ...
} @else {
    ...
}

空行

以下几种情况需要空行:

/* not good */
.element {
    ...
}
.dialog {
    color: red;
    &:after {
        ...
    }
}

/* good */
.element {
    ...
}

.dialog {
    color: red;

    &:after {
        ...
    }
}

换行

以下几种情况不需要换行:

以下几种情况需要换行:

/* not good */
.element
{color: red; background-color: black;}

/* good */
.element {
    color: red;
    background-color: black;
}

/* not good */
.element, .dialog {
    ...
}

/* good */
.element,
.dialog {
    ...
}

!important

不允许使用!important。

注释

注释统一用'/* */'(scss中也不要用'//'),具体参照右边的写法;

缩进与下一行代码保持一致;

可位于一个代码行的末尾,与代码间隔一个空格。

/* Modal header */
.modal-header {
    ...
}

/*
 * Modal header
 */
.modal-header {
    ...
}

.modal-header {
    /* 50px */
    width: 50px;

    color: red; /* color red */
}

引号

最外层统一使用双引号;

url的内容要用引号;

属性选择器中的属性值需要引号。

.element:after {
    content: "";
    background-image: url("logo.png");
}

li[data-type="single"] {
    ...
}

命名

/* class */
.element-content {
    ...
}

/* id */
#myDialog {
    ...
}

/* 变量 */
$colorBlack: #000;

/* 函数 */
@function pxToRem($px) {
    ...
}

/* 混合 */
@mixin centerBlock {
    ...
}

/* placeholder */
%myDialog {
    ...
}

属性声明顺序

相关的属性声明按右边的顺序做分组处理,组之间需要有一个空行。

.declaration-order {
    display: block;
    float: right;

    position: absolute;
    top: 0;
    right: 0;
    bottom: 0;
    left: 0;
    z-index: 100;

    border: 1px solid #e5e5e5;
    border-radius: 3px;
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;

    font: normal 13px "Helvetica Neue", sans-serif;
    line-height: 1.5;
    text-align: center;

    color: #333;
    background-color: #f5f5f5;

    opacity: 1;
}
// 下面是推荐的属性的顺序
[
    [
        "display",
        "visibility",
        "float",
        "clear",
        "overflow",
        "overflow-x",
        "overflow-y",
        "clip",
        "zoom"
    ],
    [
        "table-layout",
        "empty-cells",
        "caption-side",
        "border-spacing",
        "border-collapse",
        "list-style",
        "list-style-position",
        "list-style-type",
        "list-style-image"
    ],
    [
        "-webkit-box-orient",
        "-webkit-box-direction",
        "-webkit-box-decoration-break",
        "-webkit-box-pack",
        "-webkit-box-align",
        "-webkit-box-flex"
    ],
    [
        "position",
        "top",
        "right",
        "bottom",
        "left",
        "z-index"
    ],
    [
        "margin",
        "margin-top",
        "margin-right",
        "margin-bottom",
        "margin-left",
        "-webkit-box-sizing",
        "-moz-box-sizing",
        "box-sizing",
        "border",
        "border-width",
        "border-style",
        "border-color",
        "border-top",
        "border-top-width",
        "border-top-style",
        "border-top-color",
        "border-right",
        "border-right-width",
        "border-right-style",
        "border-right-color",
        "border-bottom",
        "border-bottom-width",
        "border-bottom-style",
        "border-bottom-color",
        "border-left",
        "border-left-width",
        "border-left-style",
        "border-left-color",
        "-webkit-border-radius",
        "-moz-border-radius",
        "border-radius",
        "-webkit-border-top-left-radius",
        "-moz-border-radius-topleft",
        "border-top-left-radius",
        "-webkit-border-top-right-radius",
        "-moz-border-radius-topright",
        "border-top-right-radius",
        "-webkit-border-bottom-right-radius",
        "-moz-border-radius-bottomright",
        "border-bottom-right-radius",
        "-webkit-border-bottom-left-radius",
        "-moz-border-radius-bottomleft",
        "border-bottom-left-radius",
        "-webkit-border-image",
        "-moz-border-image",
        "-o-border-image",
        "border-image",
        "-webkit-border-image-source",
        "-moz-border-image-source",
        "-o-border-image-source",
        "border-image-source",
        "-webkit-border-image-slice",
        "-moz-border-image-slice",
        "-o-border-image-slice",
        "border-image-slice",
        "-webkit-border-image-width",
        "-moz-border-image-width",
        "-o-border-image-width",
        "border-image-width",
        "-webkit-border-image-outset",
        "-moz-border-image-outset",
        "-o-border-image-outset",
        "border-image-outset",
        "-webkit-border-image-repeat",
        "-moz-border-image-repeat",
        "-o-border-image-repeat",
        "border-image-repeat",
        "padding",
        "padding-top",
        "padding-right",
        "padding-bottom",
        "padding-left",
        "width",
        "min-width",
        "max-width",
        "height",
        "min-height",
        "max-height"
    ],
    [
        "font",
        "font-family",
        "font-size",
        "font-weight",
        "font-style",
        "font-variant",
        "font-size-adjust",
        "font-stretch",
        "font-effect",
        "font-emphasize",
        "font-emphasize-position",
        "font-emphasize-style",
        "font-smooth",
        "line-height",
        "text-align",
        "-webkit-text-align-last",
        "-moz-text-align-last",
        "-ms-text-align-last",
        "text-align-last",
        "vertical-align",
        "white-space",
        "text-decoration",
        "text-emphasis",
        "text-emphasis-color",
        "text-emphasis-style",
        "text-emphasis-position",
        "text-indent",
        "-ms-text-justify",
        "text-justify",
        "letter-spacing",
        "word-spacing",
        "-ms-writing-mode",
        "text-outline",
        "text-transform",
        "text-wrap",
        "-ms-text-overflow",
        "text-overflow",
        "text-overflow-ellipsis",
        "text-overflow-mode",
        "-ms-word-wrap",
        "word-wrap",
        "-ms-word-break",
        "word-break"
    ],
    [
        "color",
        "background",
        "filter:progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.AlphaImageLoader",
        "background-color",
        "background-image",
        "background-repeat",
        "background-attachment",
        "background-position",
        "-ms-background-position-x",
        "background-position-x",
        "-ms-background-position-y",
        "background-position-y",
        "-webkit-background-clip",
        "-moz-background-clip",
        "background-clip",
        "background-origin",
        "-webkit-background-size",
        "-moz-background-size",
        "-o-background-size",
        "background-size"
    ],
    [
        "outline",
        "outline-width",
        "outline-style",
        "outline-color",
        "outline-offset",
        "opacity",
        "filter:progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Alpha(Opacity",
        "-ms-filter:\\'progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Alpha",
        "-ms-interpolation-mode",
        "-webkit-box-shadow",
        "-moz-box-shadow",
        "box-shadow",
        "filter:progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient",
        "-ms-filter:\\'progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient",
        "text-shadow"
    ],
    [
        "-webkit-transition",
        "-moz-transition",
        "-ms-transition",
        "-o-transition",
        "transition",
        "-webkit-transition-delay",
        "-moz-transition-delay",
        "-ms-transition-delay",
        "-o-transition-delay",
        "transition-delay",
        "-webkit-transition-timing-function",
        "-moz-transition-timing-function",
        "-ms-transition-timing-function",
        "-o-transition-timing-function",
        "transition-timing-function",
        "-webkit-transition-duration",
        "-moz-transition-duration",
        "-ms-transition-duration",
        "-o-transition-duration",
        "transition-duration",
        "-webkit-transition-property",
        "-moz-transition-property",
        "-ms-transition-property",
        "-o-transition-property",
        "transition-property",
        "-webkit-transform",
        "-moz-transform",
        "-ms-transform",
        "-o-transform",
        "transform",
        "-webkit-transform-origin",
        "-moz-transform-origin",
        "-ms-transform-origin",
        "-o-transform-origin",
        "transform-origin",
        "-webkit-animation",
        "-moz-animation",
        "-ms-animation",
        "-o-animation",
        "animation",
        "-webkit-animation-name",
        "-moz-animation-name",
        "-ms-animation-name",
        "-o-animation-name",
        "animation-name",
        "-webkit-animation-duration",
        "-moz-animation-duration",
        "-ms-animation-duration",
        "-o-animation-duration",
        "animation-duration",
        "-webkit-animation-play-state",
        "-moz-animation-play-state",
        "-ms-animation-play-state",
        "-o-animation-play-state",
        "animation-play-state",
        "-webkit-animation-timing-function",
        "-moz-animation-timing-function",
        "-ms-animation-timing-function",
        "-o-animation-timing-function",
        "animation-timing-function",
        "-webkit-animation-delay",
        "-moz-animation-delay",
        "-ms-animation-delay",
        "-o-animation-delay",
        "animation-delay",
        "-webkit-animation-iteration-count",
        "-moz-animation-iteration-count",
        "-ms-animation-iteration-count",
        "-o-animation-iteration-count",
        "animation-iteration-count",
        "-webkit-animation-direction",
        "-moz-animation-direction",
        "-ms-animation-direction",
        "-o-animation-direction",
        "animation-direction"
    ],
    [
        "content",
        "quotes",
        "counter-reset",
        "counter-increment",
        "resize",
        "cursor",
        "-webkit-user-select",
        "-moz-user-select",
        "-ms-user-select",
        "user-select",
        "nav-index",
        "nav-up",
        "nav-right",
        "nav-down",
        "nav-left",
        "-moz-tab-size",
        "-o-tab-size",
        "tab-size",
        "-webkit-hyphens",
        "-moz-hyphens",
        "hyphens",
        "pointer-events"
    ]
]

颜色

颜色16进制用小写字母;

颜色16进制尽量用简写。

/* not good */
.element {
    color: #ABCDEF;
    background-color: #001122;
}

/* good */
.element {
    color: #abcdef;
    background-color: #012;
}

媒体查询

尽量将媒体查询的规则靠近与他们相关的规则,不要将他们一起放到一个独立的样式文件中,或者丢在文档的最底部,这样做只会让大家以后更容易忘记他们。

.element {
    ...
}

.element-avatar{
    ...
}

@media (min-width: 480px) {
    .element {
        ...
    }

    .element-avatar {
        ...
    }
}

SCSS相关

提交的代码中不要有 @debug

声明顺序:

  • @extend
  • 不包含 @content@include
  • 包含 @content@include
  • 自身属性
  • 嵌套规则

@import 引入的文件不需要开头的'_'和结尾的'.scss';

嵌套最多不能超过4层;

@extend 中使用placeholder选择器;

去掉不必要的父级引用符号'&'。

/* not good */
@import "_dialog.scss";

/* good */
@import "dialog";

/* not good */
.fatal {
    @extend .error;
}

/* good */
.fatal {
    @extend %error;
}

/* not good */
.element {
    & > .dialog {
        ...
    }
}

/* good */
.element {
    > .dialog {
        ...
    }
}

杂项

不允许有空的规则;

元素选择器用小写字母;

去掉小数点前面的0;

去掉数字中不必要的小数点和末尾的0;

属性值'0'后面不要加单位;

同个属性不同前缀的写法需要在垂直方向保持对齐,具体参照右边的写法;

无前缀的标准属性应该写在有前缀的属性后面;

不要在同个规则里出现重复的属性,如果重复的属性是连续的则没关系;

不要在一个文件里出现两个相同的规则;

border: 0; 代替 border: none;

选择器不要超过4层(在scss中如果超过4层应该考虑用嵌套的方式来写);

发布的代码中不要有 @import

尽量少用'*'选择器。

/* not good */
.element {
}

/* not good */
LI {
    ...
}

/* good */
li {
    ...
}

/* not good */
.element {
    color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5);
}

/* good */
.element {
    color: rgba(0, 0, 0, .5);
}

/* not good */
.element {
    width: 50.0px;
}

/* good */
.element {
    width: 50px;
}

/* not good */
.element {
    width: 0px;
}

/* good */
.element {
    width: 0;
}

/* not good */
.element {
    border-radius: 3px;
    -webkit-border-radius: 3px;
    -moz-border-radius: 3px;

    background: linear-gradient(to bottom, #fff 0, #eee 100%);
    background: -webkit-linear-gradient(top, #fff 0, #eee 100%);
    background: -moz-linear-gradient(top, #fff 0, #eee 100%);
}

/* good */
.element {
    -webkit-border-radius: 3px;
       -moz-border-radius: 3px;
            border-radius: 3px;

    background: -webkit-linear-gradient(top, #fff 0, #eee 100%);
    background:    -moz-linear-gradient(top, #fff 0, #eee 100%);
    background:         linear-gradient(to bottom, #fff 0, #eee 100%);
}

/* not good */
.element {
    color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
    width: 50px;
    color: rgba(0, 0, 0, .5);
}

/* good */
.element {
    color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
    color: rgba(0, 0, 0, .5);
}

JavaScript

缩进

使用soft tab(4个空格)。

var x = 1,
    y = 1;

if (x < y) {
    x += 10;
} else {
    x += 1;
}

单行长度

不要超过120,但如果编辑器开启word wrap可以不考虑单行长度。

长字符串拼接用加号。

// not good
var tpl = '\
    <ul>\
        <li>1</li>\
        <li>2</li>\
        <li>3</li>\
    </ul>';

// good
var tpl =
    '<ul>' +
        '<li>1</li>' +
        '<li>2</li>' +
        '<li>3</li>' +
    '</ul>';

分号

以下几种情况后需加分号:

/* var declaration */
var x = 1;

/* expression statement */
x++;

/* do-while */
do {
    x++;
} while (x < 10);

空格

以下几种情况不需要空格:

以下几种情况需要空格:

// not good
var a = {
    b :1
};

// good
var a = {
    b: 1
};

// not good
++ x;
y ++;
z = x?1:2;

// good
++x;
y++;
z = x ? 1 : 2;

// not good
var a = [ 1, 2 ];

// good
var a = [1, 2];

// not good
var a = ( 1+2 )*3;

// good
var a = (1 + 2) * 3;

// no space before '(', one space before '{', one space between function parameters
var doSomething = function(a, b, c) {
    // do something
};

// no space before '('
doSomething(item);

// not good
for(i=0;i<6;i++){
    x++;
}

// good
for (i = 0; i < 6; i++) {
    x++;
}

空行

以下几种情况需要空行:

// need blank line after variable declaration
var x = 1;

// not need blank line when variable declaration is last expression in the current block
if (x >= 1) {
    var y = x + 1;
}

var a = 2;

// need blank line before line comment
a++;

function b() {
    // not need blank line when comment is first line of block
    return a;
}

// need blank line after blocks
for (var i = 0; i < 2; i++) {
    if (true) {
        return false;
    }

    continue;
}

var obj = {
    foo: function() {
        return 1;
    },

    bar: function() {
        return 2;
    }
};

// not need blank line when in argument list, array, object
func(
    2,
    function() {
        a++;
    },
    3
);

var foo = [
    2,
    function() {
        a++;
    },
    3
];


var foo = {
    a: 2,
    b: function() {
        a++;
    },
    c: 3
};

换行

换行的地方,行末必须有','或者运算符;

以下几种情况不需要换行:

以下几种情况需要换行:

// not good
var a = {
    b: 1
    , c: 2
};

x = y
    ? 1 : 2;

// good
var a = {
    b: 1,
    c: 2
};

x = y ? 1 : 2;
x = y ?
    1 : 2;

// no need line break with 'else', 'catch', 'finally'
if (condition) {
    ...
} else {
    ...
}

try {
    ...
} catch (e) {
    ...
} finally {
    ...
}

// not good
function test()
{
    ...
}

// good
function test() {
    ...
}

// not good
var a, foo = 7, b,
    c, bar = 8;

// good
var a,
    foo = 7,
    b,
    c,
    bar = 8;

单行注释

双斜线后,必须跟一个空格;

缩进与下一行代码保持一致;

可位于一个代码行的末尾,与代码间隔一个空格。

if (condition) {
    // if you made it here, then all security checks passed
    allowed();
}

var zhangsan = 'zhangsan'; // one space after code

多行注释

最少三行, '*'后跟一个空格,具体参照右边的写法;

建议在以下情况下使用:

/*
 * one space after '*'
 */
var x = 1;

文档注释

各类标签@param, @method等请参考usejsdocJSDoc Guide

建议在以下情况下使用:

/**
 * @func
 * @desc 一个带参数的函数
 * @param {string} a - 参数a
 * @param {number} b=1 - 参数b默认值为1
 * @param {string} c=1 - 参数c有两种支持的取值</br>1—表示x</br>2—表示xx
 * @param {object} d - 参数d为一个对象
 * @param {string} d.e - 参数d的e属性
 * @param {string} d.f - 参数d的f属性
 * @param {object[]} g - 参数g为一个对象数组
 * @param {string} g.h - 参数g数组中一项的h属性
 * @param {string} g.i - 参数g数组中一项的i属性
 * @param {string} [j] - 参数j是一个可选参数
 */
function foo(a, b, c, d, g, j) {
    ...
}

引号

最外层统一使用单引号。

// not good
var x = "test";

// good
var y = 'foo',
    z = '<div id="test"></div>';

变量命名

var thisIsMyName;

var goodID;

var reportURL;

var AndroidVersion;

var iOSVersion;

var MAX_COUNT = 10;

function Person(name) {
    this.name = name;
}

// not good
var body = $('body');

// good
var $body = $('body');

变量声明

一个函数作用域中所有的变量声明提到函数首部,除了for (...)里面使用的一次性变量。

var的数量不做限制,但要统一,一行定义一个变量。

// not good
function doSomethingWithItems(items) {
    var a,
        b;
    var value = 10;
    var result = value + 10;

    for (var i = 0, len = items.length; i < len; i++) {
        result += 10;
    }
}

// good
function doSomethingWithItems(items) {
    var a;
    var b;
    var value = 10;
    var result = value + 10;

    for (var i = 0, len = items.length; i < len; i++) {
        result += 10;
    }
}

function doSomethingWithItems(items) {
    var a,
        b,
        value = 10,
        result = value + 10;

    for (var i = 0, len = items.length; i < len; i++) {
        result += 10;
    }
}

函数

无论是函数声明还是函数表达式,'('前不要空格,但'{'前一定要有空格;

函数调用括号前不需要空格;

立即执行函数外必须包一层括号;

不要给inline function命名;

参数之间用', '分隔,注意逗号后有一个空格。

// no space before '(', but one space before'{'
var doSomething = function(item) {
    // do something
};

function doSomething(item) {
    // do something
}

// not good
doSomething (item);

// good
doSomething(item);

// requires parentheses around immediately invoked function expressions
(function() {
    return 1;
})();

// not good
[1, 2].forEach(function x() {
    ...
});

// good
[1, 2].forEach(function() {
    ...
});

// not good
var a = [1, 2, function a() {
    ...
}];

// good
var a = [1, 2, function() {
    ...
}];

// use ', ' between function parameters
var doSomething = function(a, b, c) {
    // do something
};

数组、对象

对象属性名不需要加引号;

对象以缩进的形式书写,不要写在一行;

数组、对象最后不要有逗号。

// not good
var a = {
    'b': 1
};

var a = {b: 1};

var a = {
    b: 1,
    c: 2,
};

// good
var a = {
    b: 1,
    c: 2
};

括号

下列关键字后必须有大括号(即使代码块的内容只有一行):if, else, for, while, do, switch, try, catch, finally, with

// not good
if (condition)
    doSomething();

// good
if (condition) {
    doSomething();
}

null

适用场景:

不适用场景:

// not good
function test(a, b) {
    if (b === null) {
        // not mean b is not supply
        ...
    }
}

var a;

if (a === null) {
    ...
}

// good
var a = null;

if (a === null) {
    ...
}

undefined

永远不要直接使用undefined进行变量判断;

使用typeof和字符串'undefined'对变量进行判断。

// not good
if (person === undefined) {
    ...
}

// good
if (typeof person === 'undefined') {
    ...
}

jshint

用'===', '!=='代替'==', '!=';

for-in里一定要有hasOwnProperty的判断;

不要在内置对象的原型上添加方法,如Array, Date;

不要在内层作用域的代码里声明了变量,之后却访问到了外层作用域的同名变量;

变量不要先使用后声明;

不要在一句代码中单单使用构造函数,记得将其赋值给某个变量;

不要在同个作用域下声明同名变量;

不要在一些不需要的地方加括号,例:delete(a.b);

不要使用未声明的变量(全局变量需要加到.jshintrc文件的globals属性里面);

不要声明了变量却不使用;

不要在应该做比较的地方做赋值;

debugger不要出现在提交的代码里;

数组中不要存在空元素;

不要在循环内部声明函数;

不要像这样使用构造函数,例:new function () { ... }, new Object

// not good
if (a == 1) {
    a++;
}

// good
if (a === 1) {
    a++;
}

// good
for (key in obj) {
    if (obj.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
        // be sure that obj[key] belongs to the object and was not inherited
        console.log(obj[key]);
    }
}

// not good
Array.prototype.count = function(value) {
    return 4;
};

// not good
var x = 1;

function test() {
    if (true) {
        var x = 0;
    }

    x += 1;
}

// not good
function test() {
    console.log(x);

    var x = 1;
}

// not good
new Person();

// good
var person = new Person();

// not good
delete(obj.attr);

// good
delete obj.attr;

// not good
if (a = 10) {
    a++;
}

// not good
var a = [1, , , 2, 3];

// not good
var nums = [];

for (var i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
    (function(i) {
        nums[i] = function(j) {
            return i + j;
        };
    }(i));
}

// not good
var singleton = new function() {
    var privateVar;

    this.publicMethod = function() {
        privateVar = 1;
    };

    this.publicMethod2 = function() {
        privateVar = 2;
    };
};

杂项

不要混用tab和space;

不要在一处使用多个tab或space;

换行符统一用'LF';

对上下文this的引用命名范围:self > that > _this > me;

行尾不要有空白字符;

switch的falling through和no default的情况一定要有注释特别说明;

不允许三元运算符嵌套。

不允许有空的代码块。

// not good
var a   = 1;

var ret = a ? b ? 1 : 2 : 3;

// good
var ret;

if (a) {
    if (b) {
        ret = 1;
    } else {
        ret = 2;
    }
} else {
    ret = 3;
}

function Person() {
    var self = this;

    function a() {
        var that = this;

        function b() {
            var _this = this;

            function c() {
                var me = this;

            }
        }
    }
}

switch (condition) {
    case 1:
    case 2:
        ...
        break;
    case 3:
        ...
    // why fall through
    case 4
        ...
        break;
    // why no default
}

// not good with empty block
if (condition) {

}

code snippets

code snippets规范列表,同时提供sublime插件Javascript Snippets for IMWeb支持这些snippets,可以通过Package Control安装。

说明:

[快捷代码] 描述

snippets的内容,其中占位符语法:${序号:默认值}

Console

EJS

For

Function

If

Jquery

MISC

Node

Timer

编辑器配置和构建检查

sublime3

  1. 系统&环境要求

    • win7 & OSX10
    • node
    • ruby
    • sublime3
  2. 脚本安装配置

    • 按下 ctrl+`
    • 复制粘贴以下代码执行,直到弹出【安装成功】弹窗
      pl="SublimeLinter,SublimeLinter-jscs,SublimeLinter-jshint,SublimeLinter-csslint,Emmet,SCSS,CSScomb,JsFormat,DocBlockr,SnippetMaker,BracketHighlighter,JavaScript Snippets for IMWeb,SideBarEnhancements";import webbrowser,urllib.request,os;jcp=os.path.join(sublime.packages_path(),"User",".jshintrc");jscsp=os.path.join(sublime.packages_path(),"User",".jscsrc");sm={"Preferences":{"translate_tabs_to_spaces":True,"word_wrap":True,"wrap_width":120,"tab_size":4,"default_line_ending":"unix"},"SublimeLinter":{"user":{"gutter_theme":"Packages/SublimeLinter/gutter-themes/Blueberry/round/Blueberry - round.gutter-theme","lint_mode":"load/save","linters":{"csslint":{"@disable":False,"args":[],"errors":"","excludes":[],"ignore":"box-model,adjoining-classes,box-sizing,compatible-vendor-prefixes,gradients,text-indent,fallback-colors,star-property-hack,underscore-property-hack,bulletproof-font-face,font-faces,import,regex-selectors,universal-selector,unqualified-attributes,overqualified-elements,duplicate-background-images,floats,font-sizes,ids,important,outline-none,qualified-headings,unique-headings","warnings":""},"jscs":{"@disable":True,"args":["--config",jscsp],"excludes":[]},"jshint":{"@disable":False,"args":["--config",jcp],"excludes":[]}},"mark_style":"outline"}},"JsFormat":{"indent_size":4,"indent_char":" ","eol":"\n","indent_level":0,"indent_with_tabs":False,"preserve_newlines":True,"max_preserve_newlines":10,"jslint_happy":False,"space_after_anon_function":False,"brace_style":"collapse","keep_array_indentation":False,"keep_function_indentation":False,"space_before_conditional":True,"break_chained_methods":False,"eval_code":False,"unescape_strings":False,"wrap_line_length":0,"wrap_attributes":"auto","wrap_attributes_indent_size":4,"end_with_newline":True},"CSScomb":{"config":{"remove-empty-rulesets":True,"always-semicolon":True,"color-case":"lower","block-indent":"    ","color-shorthand":True,"element-case":"lower","eof-newline":True,"leading-zero":False,"quotes":"double","sort-order-fallback":"abc","space-before-colon":"","space-after-colon":" ","space-before-combinator":" ","space-after-combinator":" ","space-between-declarations":"\n","space-before-opening-brace":" ","space-after-opening-brace":"\n","space-after-selector-delimiter":"\n","space-before-selector-delimiter":"","space-before-closing-brace":"\n","strip-spaces":True,"tab-size":True,"unitless-zero":True,"vendor-prefix-align":True,"sort-order":[["display","visibility","float","clear","overflow","overflow-x","overflow-y","clip","zoom"],["table-layout","empty-cells","caption-side","border-spacing","border-collapse","list-style","list-style-position","list-style-type","list-style-image"],["-webkit-box-orient","-webkit-box-direction","-webkit-box-decoration-break","-webkit-box-pack","-webkit-box-align","-webkit-box-flex"],["position","top","right","bottom","left","z-index"],["margin","margin-top","margin-right","margin-bottom","margin-left","-webkit-box-sizing","-moz-box-sizing","box-sizing","border","border-width","border-style","border-color","border-top","border-top-width","border-top-style","border-top-color","border-right","border-right-width","border-right-style","border-right-color","border-bottom","border-bottom-width","border-bottom-style","border-bottom-color","border-left","border-left-width","border-left-style","border-left-color","-webkit-border-radius","-moz-border-radius","border-radius","-webkit-border-top-left-radius","-moz-border-radius-topleft","border-top-left-radius","-webkit-border-top-right-radius","-moz-border-radius-topright","border-top-right-radius","-webkit-border-bottom-right-radius","-moz-border-radius-bottomright","border-bottom-right-radius","-webkit-border-bottom-left-radius","-moz-border-radius-bottomleft","border-bottom-left-radius","-webkit-border-image","-moz-border-image","-o-border-image","border-image","-webkit-border-image-source","-moz-border-image-source","-o-border-image-source","border-image-source","-webkit-border-image-slice","-moz-border-image-slice","-o-border-image-slice","border-image-slice","-webkit-border-image-width","-moz-border-image-width","-o-border-image-width","border-image-width","-webkit-border-image-outset","-moz-border-image-outset","-o-border-image-outset","border-image-outset","-webkit-border-image-repeat","-moz-border-image-repeat","-o-border-image-repeat","border-image-repeat","padding","padding-top","padding-right","padding-bottom","padding-left","width","min-width","max-width","height","min-height","max-height"],["font","font-family","font-size","font-weight","font-style","font-variant","font-size-adjust","font-stretch","font-effect","font-emphasize","font-emphasize-position","font-emphasize-style","font-smooth","line-height","text-align","-webkit-text-align-last","-moz-text-align-last","-ms-text-align-last","text-align-last","vertical-align","white-space","text-decoration","text-emphasis","text-emphasis-color","text-emphasis-style","text-emphasis-position","text-indent","-ms-text-justify","text-justify","letter-spacing","word-spacing","-ms-writing-mode","text-outline","text-transform","text-wrap","-ms-text-overflow","text-overflow","text-overflow-ellipsis","text-overflow-mode","-ms-word-wrap","word-wrap","-ms-word-break","word-break"],["color","background","filter:progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.AlphaImageLoader","background-color","background-image","background-repeat","background-attachment","background-position","-ms-background-position-x","background-position-x","-ms-background-position-y","background-position-y","-webkit-background-clip","-moz-background-clip","background-clip","background-origin","-webkit-background-size","-moz-background-size","-o-background-size","background-size"],["outline","outline-width","outline-style","outline-color","outline-offset","opacity","filter:progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Alpha(Opacity","-ms-filter:\\'progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Alpha","-ms-interpolation-mode","-webkit-box-shadow","-moz-box-shadow","box-shadow","filter:progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient","-ms-filter:\\'progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient","text-shadow"],["-webkit-transition","-moz-transition","-ms-transition","-o-transition","transition","-webkit-transition-delay","-moz-transition-delay","-ms-transition-delay","-o-transition-delay","transition-delay","-webkit-transition-timing-function","-moz-transition-timing-function","-ms-transition-timing-function","-o-transition-timing-function","transition-timing-function","-webkit-transition-duration","-moz-transition-duration","-ms-transition-duration","-o-transition-duration","transition-duration","-webkit-transition-property","-moz-transition-property","-ms-transition-property","-o-transition-property","transition-property","-webkit-transform","-moz-transform","-ms-transform","-o-transform","transform","-webkit-transform-origin","-moz-transform-origin","-ms-transform-origin","-o-transform-origin","transform-origin","-webkit-animation","-moz-animation","-ms-animation","-o-animation","animation","-webkit-animation-name","-moz-animation-name","-ms-animation-name","-o-animation-name","animation-name","-webkit-animation-duration","-moz-animation-duration","-ms-animation-duration","-o-animation-duration","animation-duration","-webkit-animation-play-state","-moz-animation-play-state","-ms-animation-play-state","-o-animation-play-state","animation-play-state","-webkit-animation-timing-function","-moz-animation-timing-function","-ms-animation-timing-function","-o-animation-timing-function","animation-timing-function","-webkit-animation-delay","-moz-animation-delay","-ms-animation-delay","-o-animation-delay","animation-delay","-webkit-animation-iteration-count","-moz-animation-iteration-count","-ms-animation-iteration-count","-o-animation-iteration-count","animation-iteration-count","-webkit-animation-direction","-moz-animation-direction","-ms-animation-direction","-o-animation-direction","animation-direction"],["content","quotes","counter-reset","counter-increment","resize","cursor","-webkit-user-select","-moz-user-select","-ms-user-select","user-select","nav-index","nav-up","nav-right","nav-down","nav-left","-moz-tab-size","-o-tab-size","tab-size","-webkit-hyphens","-moz-hyphens","hyphens","pointer-events"]]}}};c1p=None;c1cb=None;arr2=None;arr3=None;pf='Package Control.sublime-package';ipp=sublime.installed_packages_path();pp=sublime.packages_path();arr=[v for v in pl.split(',') if not os.path.exists(os.path.join(ipp,v+'.sublime-package')) and not os.path.exists(os.path.join(pp,v))];pl=','.join(arr);c1=compile('global c1p;global c1cb;cip=os.path.join(ipp,c1p);cip2=os.path.join(pp,c1p.split(".")[0]);sublime.set_timeout(lambda:exec(c1cb),10000) if os.path.exists(cip) or os.path.exists(cip2) else sublime.set_timeout(lambda:exec(c1), 3000);','','exec');c11=compile('global arr;global arr2;global arr3;arr2=[print("=============================================================>",v,"安装成功!") or v for v in arr if os.path.exists(os.path.join(ipp,v+".sublime-package")) or os.path.exists(os.path.join(pp,v))];arr3=[vv for vv in arr if vv not in arr2];arr=arr3;sublime.set_timeout(lambda:exec(c11),1000) if len(arr)>0 else None;','','exec');c2=compile('global c1p;global c1cb;window.run_command("advanced_install_package",{"packages":pl}) if len(pl)>0 else None;pla=pl.split(",");c1p=pla[len(pla)-1]+".sublime-package";c1cb=c3;exec(c1);exec(c11);','','exec');c3=compile('[exec(c4,{"pn":name,"sv":value,"sublime":sublime}) for (name,value) in sm.items()];sublime.set_timeout(lambda:webbrowser.open_new_tab("http://imweb.github.io/CodeGuide/") if sublime.ok_cancel_dialog("安装成功!", "查看规范") else None,2000);','','exec');c4=compile('s=sublime.load_settings(pn+".sublime-settings");[s.set(k, v) for (k,v) in sv.items()];sublime.save_settings(pn+".sublime-settings");','','exec');c=compile('global c1p;global c1cb;os.system("npm install -g jscs");print("=============================================================> npm install -g jscs 安装结束!");os.system("npm install -g jshint");print("=============================================================> npm install -g jshint 安装结束!");os.system("npm install -g csslint");print("=============================================================> npm install -g csslint 安装结束!");c1p=pf;c1cb=c2;exec(c1);jc=\'{"globals":{"$":true,"jQuery":true,"exports":true,"module":true,"define":true,"require":true,"it":true,"before":true,"describe":true,"beforeEach":true,"afterEach":true,"__inline":true,"__uri":true},"nomen":false,"onevar":false,"passfail":false,"white":false,"maxerr":50,"browser":true,"devel":true,"nonstandard":true,"bitwise":true,"camelcase":false,"curly":false,"eqeqeq":false,"forin":false,"immed":true,"latedef":false,"newcap":true,"noarg":true,"noempty":false,"nonew":true,"plusplus":false,"regexp":false,"undef":true,"unused":false,"strict":false,"trailing":false,"quotmark":"false","asi":false,"boss":false,"debug":false,"eqnull":false,"es5":false,"esnext":true,"evil":true,"expr":true,"funcscope":false,"globalstrict":false,"iterator":false,"lastsemic":false,"laxbreak":true,"laxcomma":false,"loopfunc":true,"multistr":true,"proto":false,"onecase":true,"regexdash":false,"scripturl":true,"smarttabs":false,"shadow":false,"sub":true,"supernew":true,"validthis":false,"-W065":false,"-W069":false}\';open(jcp,"w").write(jc);jscsc=\'{"disallowEmptyBlocks":true,"disallowKeywordsOnNewLine":["else","catch","finally"],"disallowMixedSpacesAndTabs":true,"disallowMultipleSpaces":true,"disallowNamedUnassignedFunctions":true,"disallowNewlineBeforeBlockStatements":true,"disallowQuotedKeysInObjects":true,"disallowSpaceAfterObjectKeys":true,"disallowSpaceAfterPrefixUnaryOperators":true,"disallowSpaceBeforePostfixUnaryOperators":true,"disallowSpacesInCallExpression":true,"disallowSpacesInFunction":{"beforeOpeningRoundBrace":true},"disallowSpacesInsideArrayBrackets":true,"disallowSpacesInsideBrackets":true,"disallowSpacesInsideObjectBrackets":true,"disallowSpacesInsideParentheses":true,"disallowTrailingComma":true,"disallowTrailingWhitespace":true,"requireBlocksOnNewline":true,"requireCamelCaseOrUpperCaseIdentifiers":"ignoreProperties","requireCapitalizedConstructors":true,"requireCommaBeforeLineBreak":true,"requireCurlyBraces":["if","else","for","while","do","switch","try","catch","finally","with"],"requireDollarBeforejQueryAssignment":true,"requireLineBreakAfterVariableAssignment":true,"requireLineFeedAtFileEnd":true,"requireMultipleVarDecl":null,"requireOperatorBeforeLineBreak":true,"requirePaddingNewLineAfterVariableDeclaration":true,"requirePaddingNewLinesAfterBlocks":{"allExcept":["inCallExpressions","inArrayExpressions","inProperties"]},"requirePaddingNewLinesBeforeLineComments":{"allExcept":"firstAfterCurly"},"requirePaddingNewLinesInObjects":true,"requireParenthesesAroundIIFE":true,"requireSemicolons":true,"requireSpaceAfterBinaryOperators":true,"requireSpaceAfterKeywords":["if","else","for","while","do","switch","case","try","catch","finally","with","return","typeof"],"requireSpaceAfterLineComment":true,"requireSpaceBeforeBinaryOperators":true,"requireSpaceBeforeBlockStatements":true,"requireSpaceBeforeKeywords":["else","while","catch","finally"],"requireSpaceBeforeObjectValues":true,"requireSpaceBetweenArguments":true,"requireSpacesInConditionalExpression":true,"requireSpacesInForStatement":true,"requireSpacesInFunction":{"beforeOpeningCurlyBrace":true},"safeContextKeyword":["_this","that","self","me"],"validateIndentation":4,"validateLineBreaks":"LF","disallowMultipleLineStrings":true,"disallowMultipleVarDecl":false,"validateParameterSeparator":", ","validateQuoteMarks":"\\\'"}\';open(jscsp,"w").write(jscsc);','','exec');ci=compile('urllib.request.install_opener(urllib.request.build_opener(urllib.request.ProxyHandler()));by=urllib.request.urlopen("http://packagecontrol.io/"+pf.replace(" ", "%20")).read();open(os.path.join(ipp,pf),"wb").write(by);print("=============================================================> package control 安装成功!");exec(c);','','exec');cc=compile('print("=============================================================> 开始安装...");exec(c) if os.path.exists(os.path.join(ipp,pf)) else exec(ci);','','exec');sublime.message_dialog("Please use sublime text 3!") if int(sublime.version()) < 3000 else exec(cc)
  3. 备注

    • 脚本中最前面的pl参数就是会安装的package control插件,可以根据需要增删插件,注意要区分大小写
    • 脚本中预安装的插件列表

      • SublimeLinter -- 代码检查基础框架
      • SublimeLinter-jscs -- jscs代码检查,主要偏重于js格式检查
      • SublimeLinter-jshint -- js语法检查
      • SublimeLinter-csslint -- css语法检查
      • SublimeLinter-contrib-scss-lint -- scss语法检查【废弃】
      • JSFormat -- js格式化
      • CSScomb -- css格式化
      • Emmet -- 支持emmet语法插件
      • EJS -- ejs的snippet【废弃】
      • SCSS -- scss代码高亮
      • DocBlockr -- jsdoc风格的注释插件
      • SnippetMaker -- 方便制作snippet的插件
      • BracketHighlighter -- 括号高亮
      • SassBeautify -- sass高亮【废弃】
      • SideBarEnhancements -- 增强工具栏右键菜单
      • JavaScript Snippets for IMWeb -- IMWeb团队使用的snippets【新增】
      • CSS Snippets -- 一些css snippets【废弃】
      • JavaScript & NodeJS Snippets -- 一些js snippets【废弃】
      • TortoiseSVN -- svn工具插件【废弃】
    • 配置文件列表

grunt插件

  1. 在项目中安装grunt插件

    • jscs npm install grunt-jscs --save-dev
    • jshint npm install grunt-contrib-jshint --save-dev
    • csslint npm install grunt-contrib-csslint --save-dev
    • scss-lint npm install grunt-scss-lint --save-dev
  2. 插件的配置文件

    • JSCS
      {
          options: {
              config: true,
              verbose: true
          },
          files: {
              src: [...]
          }
      }
    • JSHint
      {
          options: {
              jshintrc: true
          },
          files: {
              src: [...]
          }
      }
    • CSSLint
      {
          options: {
              csslintrc: '.csslintrc'
          },
          files: {
              src: [...]
          }
      }
    • SCSS-Lint
      {
          options: {
              config: '.scss-lint.yml'
          },
          files: {
              src: [...]
          }
      }